VirtualMini

Everything in the world !

electromagnetic pulse attack on hawaii would devastate the state - Search

The electromagnetic pulse attack on hawaii would devastate the state searched through all the site information that is gathered from around the web. To view the complete news story please click on the title link.



electromagnetic pulse attack on hawaii would devastate the state


on july 9, 1962, hawaii was hit by a massive electromagnetic pulse (emp) attack, which within minutes took down the state’s communications systems and traffic lights —  virtually everything that ran on electricity.the emp wasn’t an attack by a foreign government; rather the u.s. government had set off a 1.4-megaton nuclear warhead at a height of 248 miles above johnston atoll in an operation the military named “starfish prime.” the test caused radio disruptions in hawaii, california, and alaska, and knocked out six satellites above the pacific.“no one expected the test to impact hawaii, because it was 850 miles away,” said toby clairmont, deputy administrator for the hawaii emergency management agency, which is located within one of hawaii’s most recognizable landmarks, d...






feds dedicate $8.5m to support pulse massacre victims


the u.s. justice department is setting aside nearly $8.5 million to support victims and first responders to the pulse nightclub massacre in orlando. the cash will help the state of florida pay for grief counseling and cover the costs of an assistance center established in the aftermath of what was the deadliest mass shooting in u.s. history. “this funding will provide important support to the victims, their loved ones and communities who were affected by last year’s devastating attack on pulse nightclub,” attorney general jeff sessions said in a statement. gunman omar mateen, 29, turned the popular gay nightclub into a bloodbath last june when he opened fire on scores of terrified revelers. in all, 49 people were killed and more than 50 others were injured.new photos...






north korea tensions have hawaii pols revisiting emergency attack plans


as tensions with north korea mount, hawaii lawmakers anxiously are dusting off the state’s emergency plans in preparation for the possibility – however remote – of an attack on the islands.the plans were last revisited in the 1980s. but the hawaii house public safety committee on thursday formally called for the state’s defense agency to repair their hundreds of cold war-era fallout shelters and restock them with medical supplies, food and water."they haven't been updated since 1985," rep. matt lopresti, a democrat who serves as vice chair of that committee, told hawaii news now. “i was 11 years old when they were last updated. many of the buildings that are on the fallout shelter list don't exist anymore.”while the bellicose threats and displays of weapons capability in py...






north korea tensions have hawaii pols revisiting emergency attack plans


as tensions with north korea mount, hawaii lawmakers anxiously are dusting off the state’s emergency plans in preparation for the possibility – however remote – of an attack on the islands.the plans were last revisited in the 1980s. but the hawaii house public safety committee on thursday formally called for the state’s defense agency to repair their hundreds of cold war-era fallout shelters and restock them with medical supplies, food and water."they haven't been updated since 1985," rep. matt lopresti, a democrat who serves as vice chair of that committee, told hawaii news now. “i was 11 years old when they were last updated. many of the buildings that are on the fallout shelter list don't exist anymore.”while the bellicose threats and displays of weapons capability in py...






pulse shooting first responder clashes with orlando over new post


the orlando police officer diagnosed with ptsd after the pulse nightclub shooting is clashing with the florida city over his new assignment. gerry realin — a former hazmat officer who was tasked with removing bodies following the june attack — was assigned to a new office at orlando's city hall starting monday. the problem, however, was that realin didn't show up. his doctor said realin — who collects a full salary from the department — could do clerical work so long as it wasn't at the police department, city officials told the orlando sentinel. realin was assigned last week to run a new bike safety program at city hall, according to the report.pulse survivors 'shame' univision for massacre reenactment show realin, however, said the assignment still count...






‘if you’re alive, raise your hand’: orlando police detail response to pulse nigh


for more than three hours on the morning of june 12, 2016, friends and family members of people trapped inside pulse nightclub in orlando called 911, sometimes begging police to save their loved ones. (gillian brockell/the washington post)when orlando police officers and other law enforcement officials flooded pulse nightclub last summer after a shooting rampage, they encountered a horrifying scene reminiscent of a war zone.nearly half of the 49 people who would die during the massacre and hours-long standoff that followed were on the dance floor and a nearby stage. there were so many bodies massed on the floor that after police went inside, an officer had to announce: “if you’re alive, raise your hand.”that account comes from a presentation orlando police chief john mina has give...






atmosphere - how does earth's heat escape to space?


how does earth's heat escape to space?tl;dr: by the exact same method heat from the sun escapes into space. electromagnetic radiation does not require a medium. in fact, electromagnetic radiation works best in a vacuum; no medium is required. intervening matter has an annoying tendency to absorb electromagnetic radiation. that absorption, in a nutshell, is the greenhouse gas effect.earth's heat escapes into space via a complex set of processes. one is convection. eagles, hawks, and other birds use those rising thermals to get a free ride to altitude. a second mechanism is latent heat. evaporation of water is an endothermic process, meaning it absorbs energy from the surroundings (this is why sweating keeps you cool). condensation is an exothermic process. while falling rain cools the surfa






pulse: re 1 candy pulse hits rs 300 cr sales in 2 years, mncs feel the heat


new delhi: upstart indian brands beating mnc marquee brands is not new. but this one takes the cake – or the candy. pulse, a raw mango flavoured tangy candy, was launched by ds group, makers of rajanigandha pan masala and catch bottled water, in mid-2015. last month, the re 1 candy clocked rs 300 crore in sales, beating mnc blue chip munchie brands such as oreo (rs 283 crore in sales, launched in 2011) and mars bars (rs 270 crore in sales, launched in 2011). pulse looks like a sweet success compared to other mnc brands as well. coca-cola’s much advertised coke zero, launched in late 2014, has a sales figure of rs 120 crore. pulse’s brisk sales growth is more impressive considering the stiff competition in india. the sweet candy category is estimated at rs 6,600 crore (hard boiled can...






french man has part of leg amputated after shark attack in hawaii


honolulu –  a man who witnessed a hawaii shark attack says the victim is a french surfer who had part of a leg amputated but is in remarkably good spirits.mac pigott tells khon-tv he visited the victim on saturday in a hospital on the island of kauai following the attack at davidson's beach.pigott did not identify the french man by name, but he provided khon-tv with a picture of him smiling from his hospital bed.pigott says doctors amputated one of the man's legs just below the knee.he says the victim is setting goals so he can compete one day in the paralympic games.officials closed the beach on friday after the attack.khon-tv says it reopened on saturday.






omar mateen’s wife went on scouting trips before pulse m acre


orlando shooter omar mateen’s widow accompanied him on scouting trips to the pulse nightclub, and saw him leave home with a gun and a backpack full of ammunition, prosecutors said wednesday. noor salman was arrested last month in california and charged with helping mateen plan the june 12 attack on pulse nightclub that killed 49 people and wounded nearly 70 others. at a bond hearing, a federal judge declined to release the woman, and ordered a mental health evaluation for her instead. salman's attorneys maintain she was a battered spouse who knew nothing of mateen's murderous plans. but prosecutors insist salman, 31, had prior knowledge of the deadly attack and did nothing to stop it. they said she deliberately misled police on the day of the attack,orlando club gunman's wife knew of m ac






pulse nightclub killer's wife to be released from jail ahead of trial


noor salman, the wife of the killer who opened fire at the pulse nightclub in orlando last summer, will be able to leave jail within days ahead of her trial on charges of helping carry out the massacre, a federal judge in san francisco ruled wednesday.murder suspect alex deaton caught after multi-state manhuntin announcing her decision, u.s. magistrate judge donna ryu said salman, 31, was not a danger to the public and had no credible connections to the islamic state terror group -- which the prosecution strongly disputed. salman will have to remain in jail for at least two days, giving the feds time to appeal.her husband, omar mateen, pledged allegiance to several terror groups during the shooting that killed 49 people in june of last year before police killed him. after the attack, salm.






the most reputable companies in the world : thechive


the reputation institute is a reputation management consulting firm based in boston that has tried to gauge the reputation various companies have with consumers. they have a proprietary reptrak pulse measurement system that aims to do that by collecting feedback from 170,000 respondents. it’s basically a ranking of the most respected and highly regarded companies by society.the ranking consists of seven categories: products & services, innovation, workplace, governance, citizenship, leadership, and performance. the top 16 companies are below along with their reptrak pulse score, and you can check out the full list here.16. nintendoreptrak pulse score – 75.72






two mps want cell towers shifted over health, telecom ministry says no proof


written by deepak patel | new delhi | updated: may 17, 2017 4:24 am no proof of harm: manoj sinhathe telecom ministry has rejected requests from two mps, including one from the bjp, to stop the construction of mobile towers in specific areas of their constituencies due to public health concerns over electromagnetic radiation, according to records obtained by the indian express under the right to information (rti) act.rti records show that manoj sinha, minister of state (independent charge), department of telecommunications (dot), denied the requests stating that the tower “has not yet been operational” in one case and that the amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted has been “found to be compliant as per the dot norms” in the other.rti records show that the requests to...






french surfer loses part of his leg in hawaii shark attack


honolulu (ap) — a man who witnessed a hawaii shark attack says the victim is a french surfer who had part of a leg amputated but is in remarkably good spirits. mac pigott tells khon-tv he visited the victim on saturday in a hospital on the island of kauai following the attack at davidson's beach. pigott did not identify the french man by name, but he provided khon-tv with a picture of him smiling from his hospital bed. pigott says doctors amputated one of the man's legs just below the knee. he says the victim is setting goals so he can compete one day in the paralympic games. officials closed the beach on friday after the attack. khon-tv says it reopened on saturday.tags:newswiresus newswiressend a letter to the editorjoin the conversation:facebooktweet






nakkiah lui puts black is the new white on show


until recently, nakkiah lui was busy preparing for the end of the world as she knew it. she obsessed over stories of doomsday scenarios, featuring natural disasters, terrorist attacks, solar flares, pandemics, an economic collapse or electromagnetic pulse. she studied "prepping" videos on youtube and considered stockpiling military-issue, ready-to-eat meals, confident in the knowledge that something horrid was headed her way.an underground bunker for her apartment in ultimo, in inner-city sydney, was not part of her plans, though. "we just didn't have the space." nakkiah lui's new play black is the new white opens at the stc in may. photo: james brickwoodthe indigenous writer, actor and director had a very good 2016 – including a starring role in the second season of abc tv's...






twitch goes full facebook


pulse builds off of the channel feed feature that twitch rolled out in beta form in march, allowing streamers to post updates to their own pages. pulse collects these messages in one spot, so fans don't have to visit specific pages to see a curated feed of all the latest streaming news. channel feed will officially roll out to all streamers in mid-march.most folks signed into twitch should see the new pulse feed on the front page starting today, though the service will take a few weeks to show up on every user's account. streamers can post updates via the broadcaster dashboard or channel feed, while viewers can react and post messages themselves directly from the pulse front page. of course, editors and moderators are able to delete posts and comments made on their channels.at first, all..






hawaii becomes 1st state to sue president trump over new travel ban


closeskip in skipxembedxshare hawaii has become the first state to file a lawsuit against president donald trump's revised travel ban, saying the order will harm its muslim population, tourism and foreign students. (march 9) appresident trump during a joint new conference with the japanese prime minister in the east room of the white house on feb. 10, 2017.(photo: carolyn kaster, ap) 78 connectlinkedinemailmorehawaii became the first state to sue over president trump’s revised travel ban, saying in a lawsuit that it will disrupt families, harm hawaii’s muslim population, tourism and foreign students and is "antithetical to hawaii's state identity and spirit.""for many in hawaii, including state officials, the executive order conjures up the memory of t...






judge agrees to release pulse shooter's wife noor salman on bail


the widow of the gunman who killed dozens of people at a florida nightclub is not a danger to the public and will be released from jail ahead of her trial on charges of aiding the attack, a federal judge in california decided wednesday. u.s. magistrate judge donna ryu also said there is no evidence that noor salman, 31, has connections to the islamic state group or holds extremist views. her husband, omar mateen, pledged allegiance to several terror organizations during the shooting that killed 49 people at pulse nightclub in orlando before police killed him. prosecutors argued against salman’s release on bail, calling her a danger to the public. she will stay behind bars for two days so the government can appeal.arsonist gets 30 years after torching mosque tied to omar ...






hawaii becomes 1st state to sue president trump over new travel ban


closeskip in skipxembedxshare hawaii has become the first state to file a lawsuit against president donald trump's revised travel ban, saying the order will harm its muslim population, tourism and foreign students. (march 9) appresident trump during a joint new conference with the japanese prime minister in the east room of the white house on feb. 10, 2017.(photo: carolyn kaster, ap) 6020 connectlinkedinemailmorehawaii became the first state to sue over president trump’s revised travel ban, saying in a lawsuit that it will disrupt families, harm hawaii’s muslim population, tourism and foreign students and is "antithetical to hawaii's state identity and spirit.""for many in hawaii, including state officials, the executive order conjures up the memory of...






hawaii becomes 1st state to sue president trump over new travel ban


closeskip in skipxembedxshare hawaii has become the first state to file a lawsuit against president donald trump's revised travel ban, saying the order will harm its muslim population, tourism and foreign students. (march 9) appresident trump during a joint new conference with the japanese prime minister in the east room of the white house on feb. 10, 2017.(photo: carolyn kaster, ap) 8920 connectlinkedinemailmorehawaii became the first state to sue over president trump’s revised travel ban, saying in a lawsuit that it will disrupt families, harm hawaii’s muslim population, tourism and foreign students and is "antithetical to hawaii's state identity and spirit.""for many in hawaii, including state officials, the executive order conjures up the memory of...






omar mateen’s wife went on scouting trips before pulse m acre


san francisco — prosecutors say the widow of the man who committed a deadly attack on a florida nightclub accompanied him on scouting trips to the venue and knew about his plan. federal prosecutors in california for the first time wednesday divulged details of the charges against 31-year-old noor salman. prosecutors say she saw her husband omar mateen leave their fort pierce, florida, home with a gun and backpack full of ammunition on the night of the attack. salman was arrested last month in suburban san francisco and charged with helping mateen plan the june 12 attack on the pulse nightclub in orlando that killed 49 people and wounded 53 others.orlando club gunman's wife knew of m acre plot: prosecutors salman's attorneys maintain she was a battered spouse who knew nothing of mateen's p






hawaii becomes first state to sue trump over new travel order


closeskip in skipxembedxshare hawaii has become the first state to file a lawsuit against president donald trump's revised travel ban, saying the order will harm its muslim population, tourism and foreign students. (march 9) appresident trump during a joint new conference with the japanese prime minister in the east room of the white house on feb. 10, 2017.(photo: carolyn kaster, ap) 33 connectlinkedinemailmorehonolulu - the state of hawaii has become the first state to sue to stop president trump’s revised travel ban.attorneys for the state filed the lawsuit wednesday in federal court in honolulu. the state had previously sued over trump’s initial travel ban, but that lawsuit was put on hold while other cases played out across the country.hawaii gave notice ...






north korea threat: top admiral calls on more missile interceptors in hawaii


a top u.s. commander in the pacific on wednesday said he believes hawaii needs more missile interceptors in response to the growing threat on north korea and pyongyang’s capability to launch a rocket.adm. harry harris told the house armed services committee that hawaii’s defenses were sufficient for now, but could one day be overwhelmed in an onslaught."i don't share your confidence that north korea is not going to attack either south korea, or japan, or the united states ... once they have the capability," harris said.he could not comment on the precise capability of the u.s.' defenses, but he said, "i do believe that the numbers could be improved. in other words, we need more interceptors."hawaii lawmakers have already been scrambling to come up with emergency plans in event of...






pulse nightclub killer's wife to be released from jail ahead of trial


noor salman, the wife of the killer who opened fire at the pulse nightclub in orlando last summer, will be able to leave jail within days ahead of her trial on charges of helping carry out the massacre, a federal judge in san francisco ruled wednesday.in announcing her decision, u.s. magistrate judge donna ryu said salman, 31, was not a danger to the public and had no credible connections to the islamic state terror group -- which the prosecution strongly disputed. salman will have to remain in jail for at least two days, giving the feds time to appeal.her husband, omar mateen, pledged allegiance to several terror groups during the shooting that killed 49 people in june of last year before police killed him. after the attack, salman moved from orlando to her mother's home in rodeo, outs...






helicopter video shows aftermath of pulse nightclub shooting


orlando officials have released helicopter footage from the pulse nightclub massacre showing first responders on the scene moments after a gunman killed 49 people last june. the orange county sheriff’s office released the footage on monday, which began at 2:10 a.m. about eight minutes after omar mateen, 29, fatally shot more than four dozen people and injured 53 others at pulse nightclub in orlando on june 12. "we need to start getting these injured out. we have a lot down in here. he (mateen) is trapped in the bathroom," an official said in a radio transmission at 2:15 a.m., according to news6.the orange county sheriff’s office released the footage on monday from the pulse nightclub shooting in 2016.(news 6) the video shows armed law enforcement standing outside the...






helicopter video shows aftermath of pulse nightclub shooting


orlando officials have released helicopter footage from the pulse nightclub massacre showing first responders on the scene moments after a gunman killed 49 people last june. the orange county sheriff’s office released the footage on monday, which began at 2:10 a.m. about eight minutes after omar mateen, 29, fatally shot more than four dozen people and injured 53 others at pulse nightclub in orlando on june 12. "we need to start getting these injured out. we have a lot down in here. he (mateen) is trapped in the bathroom," an official said in a radio transmission at 2:15 a.m., according to news6.the orange county sheriff’s office released the footage on monday from the pulse nightclub shooting in 2016.(news 6) the video shows armed law enforcement standing outside the...






half of pulse shooting victims didn’t have a chance to react


things were so bad inside the pulse nightclub following the worst mass shooting in u.s. history that one orlando police officer told patrons covering the floor, “if you’re alive, raise your hand.” the chilling detail comes from a new presentation that orlando police chief john mina has given to roughly 10 police organizations. roughly half of the 49 people killed during the june 12 massacre didn’t have a chance to react to gunman omar mateen’s firing, according to the report, which was obtained by the orlando sentinel.55 photos view gallery remembering the mass shooting at pulse nightclub in orlando another 13 victims died in the bathrooms while waiting to get medical help.pulse nightclub shooting victims sue omar mateen's employer, wife nine of them died i...






judges blocks trump’s second immigration ban


a federal judge in hawaii has put president donald trump’s revised travel ban on hold.u.s. district judge derrick watson issued his ruling wednesday after hearing arguments on hawaii’s request for a temporary restraining order involving the ban.his ruling prevents the executive order from going into effect thursday.more than half a dozen states are trying to stop the ban, and federal courts in maryland, washington state and hawaii heard arguments wednesday about whether it should be put into practice.hawaii argued that the ban discriminates on the basis of nationality and would prevent hawaii residents from receiving visits from relatives in the six mostly muslim countries covered by the ban.the state also says the ban would harm its tourism industry and the ability to recruit foreign ...






us probes plane that got too close to air force one, report says


a private plane got within 2 nautical miles of air force one, which is closer than permitted, while flying over florida and the incident is being investigated by authorities, bloomberg reported.the planes were flying on a parallel route and there was no risk of a collision during the incident, which occurred 30 miles out on feb. 3,  sources told the news agency. president trump arrived safely at palm beach international airport. the report said that when air force one is in flight, secret service agents work with faa supervisors and monitor for threats. air force one is unlike most aircraft. it can be refueled in the air and, with an unlimited range, can take the president wherever he needs to go.its electrical systems are hardened to protect against an electromagnetic pulse, and the plane






why hawaii says trump’s new travel ban is still unconstitutional


the state of hawaii on wednesday is expected to file the first formal legal challenge to president trump’s revised executive order barring citizens of six muslim-majority countries from entering the united states.many of their arguments, though, already have been made public.hawaii attached a copy of its new lawsuit to a court filing asking a federal judge to unfreeze the litigation over trump’s original travel ban. the 38-page complaint asserts that the new executive order — much like the old — violates the establishment clause of the first amendment because it is essentially a muslim ban, hurts the ability of state businesses and universities to recruit top talent and damages the financial interests of the state, which considers tourism its lead economic driver.[hawaii plans to s...






widow of pulse nightclub shooter freed on bail


in this june 12, 2016, file photo, law enforcement officials work at the pulse gay nightclub in orlando after a mass shooting.(photo: chris o'meara, ap) 19 connectlinkedinemailmorea federal judge in california agreed wednesday to release on bail the widow of the man who killed 49 people in a shooting rampage at an orlando nightclub last year.noor salman, 31, is accused of aiding in the attack and misleading police and fbi special agents after the carnage. salman could face life in prison if convicted of the charges. no trial date has been set.orlando police chief john mina said he disappointed in the ruling by judge donna ryu."nothing can erase the pain we all feel about the senseless and brutal murders of 49 of our neighbors, friends, family members and loved ones,...






us probes plane that got too close to air force one, report says


authorities are investigating an incident over florida where a private plane got within two nautical miles of air force one, which is closer than permitted, bloomberg reported.the incident occurred on feb. 3, and sources  told the news agency  that  there was no risk of collision. the planes were flying on a parallel route. president trump arrived safely at palm beach international airport. the incident occurred about 30 miles out.the report said that when air force one is in flight, secret service agents work with faa supervisors and monitor for threats. air force one is unlike most aircraft. it can be refueled in the air and, with an unlimited range, can take the president wherever he needs to go. its electrical systems are hardened to protect against an electromagnetic pulse, and the pl






why hawaii says trump’s new travel ban is still unconstitutional


the state of hawaii is expected to file the first formal legal challenge wednesday to president trump’s revised executive order barring citizens of six muslim-majority countries from entering the united states.many of its arguments already have been made public.hawaii attached a copy of its new lawsuit to a court filing asking a federal judge to unfreeze the litigation over trump’s original travel ban. the 38-page complaint asserts that the new executive order — much like the old — violates the establishment clause of the first amendment because it is essentially a muslim ban, hurts the ability of state businesses and universities to recruit top talent and damages the financial interests of the state, which considers tourism its lead economic driver.[hawaii plans to sue to block ne...






donald trump's new travel ban blocked by judge in hawaii - hours before taking e


a judge in hawaii has put president donald trump’s revised federal travel ban on hold.u.s. district judge derrick watson issued his ruling on wednesday after hearing arguments on hawaii’s request for a temporary restraining order involving the ban.his ruling prevents the executive order from going into effect on thursday. the second attempt at a ban on travel was a watered down version of his first attempt, and targets all non-visa holders from six muslim-majority countries. jonathan ernst / reuters more than half a dozen states are trying to stop the ban, and federal courts in maryland, washington state and hawaii heard arguments wednesday about whether it should be put into practice.hawaii argued that the ban discriminates on the basis of nationality and would prevent hawaii ...






hawaii becomes first state to sue over us president donald trump’s new travel ba


by: ap | honolulu (hawaii) | published:march 9, 2017 5:17 pm hawaii’s complaint says it is suing to protect its residents, businesses and schools, as well as its “sovereignty against illegal actions of president donald j trump and the federal government.” (source: aron anderson/facebookhawaii has become the first state to sue to stop president donald trump’s revised travel ban. attorneys for the state filed the lawsuit yesterday in federal court in honolulu. the state had previously sued over trump’s initial travel ban, but that lawsuit was put on hold while other cases played out across the country. hawaii gave notice tuesday night that it intended to file an amended lawsuit to cover the new ban, which plans to goes into effect march 16. the revised executive order bars new...






pulse nightclub owner to turn venue into permanent memorial


the site of orlando's pulse nightclub, where 49 people were killed by omar mateen, will become a permanent memorial, its owner announced thursday. standing outside the now vacant venue, barbara poma said the onepulse foundation will raise funds to help build the memorial as well as a museum with artifacts and stories about the june 2016 mass shooting. the foundation will also raise money for scholarships and community grants for those families whose loved ones survived the shooting. "we will not let hate win," poma said during a press conference. "we will ensure that no one of this generation and the generations to come will ever forget what happened here."half of pulse shooting victims didn’t have a chance to react(james keivom/new york daily news) poma said th...






trump travel ban: hawaii judge extends hold on implementing executive order


a federal judge in hawaii issued an extension on his order blocking president trump’s travel ban hours after hearing arguments wednesday.hawaii contends the travel ban discriminates against muslims and hurts the state’s tourist-dependent economy. state attorney general douglas chin argued that the ban’s implied message is like a “neon sign flashing ‘muslim ban, muslim ban” that the government did not bother to turn off.extending the temporary order until the state's lawsuit was resolved would ensure the constitutional rights of muslim citizens across the u.s. are vindicated after "repeated stops and starts of the last two months," the state has said.the trump administration had asked judge derrick watson, a federal judge in hawaii, to narrow his ruling to cover only the part...






meet sima azimi, afghanistan’s first woman wushu trainer


image 1 of 1100afghan wushu martial arts trainer sima azimi, 20, takes part in a training session in kabul. wushu is both an exhibition and a fullcontact sport derived from traditional chinese martial arts. it was developed in china after 1949, in an effort to standardise the practice of traditional chinese martial arts.