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quantum computing is a very active and rapidly expanding field of research. many companies and research institutes are spending a lot on this futuristic and potentially game-changer technology. some even built toy models for a quantum computer in the lab. for instance, see ibm 50-qubit quantum computer.however, there are some scientists who are not that optimist when it comes to the predicted potential advantages of quantum computing/computers in comparison with the classical ones. they believe there are theoretical obstacles and fundamental limitations which significantly reduce the efficiency of quantum computing. one mathematical argument against quantum computing (and the only one that i am aware of) is based on the gil kalai's idea concerning the sensitivity of quantum computation pr.

scientists have created an ultrasecure form of money using quantum mechanics — and immediately demonstrated a potential security loophole.under ideal conditions, quantum currency is impossible to counterfeit. but thanks to the messiness of reality, a forger with access to sophisticated equipment could skirt that quantum security if banks don’t take appropriate precautions, scientists report march 1 in npj quantum information. quantum money as a concept has been around since the 1970s, but this is the first time anyone has created and counterfeited quantum cash, says study coauthor karel lemr, a quantum physicist at palacký university olomouc in the czech republic.instead of paper banknotes, the researchers’ quantum bills are minted in light. to transfer funds, a series of photons

bit by qubit, scientists are edging closer to the realm where quantum computers will reign supreme.ibm is now testing a prototype quantum processor with 50 quantum bits, or qubits, the company announced november 10. that’s around the number needed to meet a sought-after milestone: demonstrating that quantum computers can perform specific tasks that are beyond the reach of traditional computers. unlike standard bits, which represent either 0 or 1, qubits can indicate a combination of the two, using what’s called a quantum superposition. this property allows quantum computers to perform certain kinds of calculations more quickly. but because quantum bits are more finicky than standard bits, scaling up is no easy task. previously, ibm’s largest quantum processor boasted 17 qubits.a race...

los angeles — quantum computers are bulking up.researchers from google are testing a quantum computer with 72 quantum bits, or qubits, scientists reported march 5 at a meeting of the american physical society — a big step up from the company’s previous nine-qubit chip.the team hopes to use the larger quantum chip to demonstrate quantum supremacy for the first time, performing a calculation that is impossible with traditional computers (sn: 7/8/17, p. 28), google physicist julian kelly reported.achieving quantum supremacy requires a computer of more than 50 qubits, but scientists are still struggling to control so many finicky quantum entities at once. unlike standard bits that take on a value of 0 or 1, a qubit can be 0, 1 or a mashup of the two, thanks to a quantum quirk known as su...

in the many worlds interpretation, measurement devices (i.e. including things like the "conscious" (whatever that means) you) are equally part of the quantum system along with the putative "quantum system" that is under your measurement. during the "measurement", nothing remarkable happens: the whole quantum system (i.e. you and the studied system) remain in a pure (albeit monstrously high dimensional) quantum state. the state of this composite system evolves unitarily and utterly deterministically. the "you" and "measured" subsystem become entangled by the measurement, but this entanglement is still an outcome of deterministic pure state evolution.so the point is that you and the measured system never come out of quantum superposition. all the base states (different "worlds") ...

particles of light born in space have connected two cities via a quantum link about 10 times longer than any created before.a quantum-communications satellite beamed photons to earth, separating them by more than 1,200 kilometers. the feat showed that the particles of light can retain a strange type of interconnectedness, known as quantum entanglement, even when flung to opposite ends of a country, researchers from china report in the june 16 science. the previous distance record was about 100 kilometers (sn: 6/30/12, p. 10). launched in 2016, the one-of-a-kind satellite is laying the groundwork for a space-based network of quantum communication.“it’s a huge achievement for quantum entanglement and quantum science,” says physicist thomas jennewein of the university of waterloo in can...

here are some references and following them a short answer.a good reference for the current situation to start with is john preskill's recent paper "quantum computing in the nisq era and beyond" nisq stands for "noisy intermediate scale quantum" and it is a very useful notion coined by preskill who also coined the notion of "quantum supremacy" - the ability of quantum computers to perform certain computational tasks hundreds orders of magnitude better than classical computers. the crucial theoretical and experimental issue is to understand quantum devices in the nisq regime. as for my papers: the two mathematical theorems on which the argument against quantum computers is largely based, are from my paper gaussian noise sensitivity and bosonsampling with guy kindler; in my icm 2018 p...

a newfangled data storage device, which takes up less than a millionth the amount of space of its predecessors, could be a key component of futuristic communication systems.scientists fashioned a tiny crystal that stores snippets of quantum information — which unlike computer data “bits” that come only in 0s and 1s, can also exist as both 0 and 1 simultaneously. this crystal is the first quantum memory device of its kind that could fit on a chip alongside nano-sized instruments for detecting and sending signals written in quantum bits. this work, reported online august 31 in science, improves prospects for establishing a widespread, ultrasecure network of quantum communications.crystal quantum memory devices hoard data by absorbing photons, each of which carry one quantum bit, or qub...

one of the biggest obstacles to quantum supremacy is error rates and subsequent scalability. qubits (the quantum version of traditional bits) are very unstable and can be adversely affected by noise, and most of these systems can only hold a state for less than 100 microseconds. google believes that quantum supremacy can be "comfortably demonstrated" with 49 qubits and a two-qubit error below 0.5 percent. previous quantum systems by google have given two-qubit errors of 0.6 percent, which in theory sounds like a miniscule difference, but in the world of quantum computing remains significant.however, each bristlecone chip features 72 qubits, which may help mitigate some of this error, but as google says, quantum computing isn't just about qubits. "operating a device such as bristlecone ...

there are four different areas of quantum computing that are being researched: communications, simulation, computation and sensing and metrology. quantum communication will allow people to send secure data across distances without the risk of it being hacked or intercepted. the issue is that these systems are expensive and difficult. additionally, they only work over distances of about 100 km (about 60 miles). the development of a quantum router will solve the latter problem in about six years, while the next evolution of quantum communication systems will address the former in the next three years.quantum computation involves harnessing processes in order to vastly improve issues of data performance. right now, it's limited to just a few bits. the issue is scaling it upward so more data .

quantum computing -- with its ability to calculate and solve algorithms in parallel, at speeds far faster than conventional computers -- promises to revolutionize fields from chemistry and logistics to finance and physics. the thing is, while quantum computing is a technology for the world of tomorrow, it hasn't yet advanced far enough for anyone to know what that world will actually look like."people aren't going to just wake up in three or four years, and say, 'oh okay, now i'm ready to use quantum, what do i have to learn,'" bob sutor, vp of ibm q strategy and ecosystem at ibm research, told engadget.these systems rely on the "spooky" properties of quantum physics, as einstein put it, and their operation is radically different from how today's computers work. "what you're ba...

quantum computers work much differently than regular supercomputers, taking advantage of weird quantum physics principals like "superposition." in theory, they can run specific programs, like encryption-cracking algorithms, many, many times faster than regular computers.the 50 qubit system (shown below) is a significant leap toward practical quantum computers. "we are really proud of this, it's a big frickin' deal," ibm ai and quantum computer director dario gil told mit technology review. other players in quantum computing including google, intel and rigetti.ibm's 50 qubit computer is just a prototype, but it will soon have a working 20 qubit computer that users can try online by the end of 2017, with improvements planned throughout 2018. the company has already made lower-powered ...

a record-breaking quantum satellite has again blown away the competition, achieving two new milestones in long-distance quantum communications through space.in june, chinese researchers demonstrated that the satellite micius could send entangled quantum particles to far-flung locations on earth, their properties remaining intertwined despite being separated by more than 1,200 kilometers (sn online: 6/15/17). now researchers have used the satellite to teleport particles’ properties and transmit quantum encryption keys. the result, reported in two papers published online july 3 and july 4 at arxiv.org, marks the first time the two techniques have been demonstrated in space.in quantum teleportation, the properties of one particle are transferred to another. the scientists first sent particl..

the promise of quantum computing supremacy is bunk by colin earl references topolynomial time and extravagant models by leonid a. levinon quantum computing by oded goldreichnote (d) quantum computers for chapter 12.8: undecidability and intractability by stephen wolframfor doubts against qc expressed by mathematicians, computer scientists, and physicists.details for 1: l. levin does not attack qc, but only its application to break rsa encryption:the closed-minded cryptographers, however, were not convinced and this result brought a dismissal of the unit-cost model, not rsa.another, not dissimilar, attack is raging this very moment. ... peter shor ... factors integers in polynomial time using an imaginary analog device, quantum computer (qc), inspired by the laws of quantum physics taken to

hackers, take notice: ultrasecure quantum video chats are now possible across the globe.in a demonstration of the world’s first intercontinental quantum link, scientists held a long-distance videoconference on september 29 between austria and china. to secure the communication, a chinese satellite distributed a quantum key, a secret string of numbers used to encrypt the video transmission so that no one could eavesdrop on the conversation. in the call, chemist chunli bai, president of the chinese academy of sciences in beijing, spoke with quantum physicist anton zeilinger, president of the austrian academy of sciences in vienna.“it’s a huge achievement,” says quantum physicist thomas jennewein of the university of waterloo in canada, who was not involved with the project. “it’s...

communication is a two-way street. thanks to quantum mechanics, that adage applies even if you’ve got only one particle to transmit messages with.using a single photon, or particle of light, two people can simultaneously send information to one another, scientists report in a new pair of papers. the feat relies on a quirk of quantum mechanics — superposition, the phenomenon through which particles can effectively occupy two places at once.sending information via quantum particles is a popular research subject, thanks to the promise of unhackable quantum communication (sn: 12/23/17, p. 27). the new studies specify a previously unidentified twist on that type of technique. “sometimes you overlook a cool idea, and then it's just literally right in front of your nose,” says university...

this answer is meant to add to luke's excellent concise answer, so please read his answer first.in quantum mechanics, only measurements have the statistical distributions, the "uncertainties" and all the things that are (validly) bothering you. as you point out, this makes notions of measured spacetime co-ordinates problematic. but the underlying theory that lets one calculate these statistical distributions can be lorentz-invariant. it is not emphasized enough, particularly in many lay expositions, that much, if not most of quantum mechanics is utterly deterministic. this deterministic part is concerned with the description and calculation of the evolution of a system's quantum state. aside from some more modern mathematical techniques and notations, this part of quantum mechanics pro...

gamergaming|1h ago|article|2|amazon has discounted two console exclusives for the xbox one with quantum break dropping to $19.99 and recore to $14.99. quantum breakrecorexbox onegameidealist.comread full story >>gameidealist.com

the technology lets electrons hold data for "hundreds" of nanoseconds versus "tens." that may not sound like much, but that's huge amount of time at a quantum level -- and it could be vital to processing data in quantum computing systems.this might not stay confined to the lab, either. harvard is patenting the technology and is "exploring" opportunities to turn it into a practical product. that may be challenging given the use of diamond and the relatively unfamiliar techniques. should it work, though, you could see quantum computers transform from experiments into real-world machines.

Source : https://engadget.com/2018/05/27/diamond-strings-could-provide-memory-for-quantum-computers/

beijinga chinese quantum satellite has dispatched transmissions over a distance of 1,200 km (746 miles), a dozen times further than the previous record, a breakthrough in a technology that could be used to deliver secure messages, state media said on friday.china launched the world’s first quantum satellite last august, to help establish “hack proof” communications between space and the ground, state media said at the time.the feat opens up “bright prospects” for quantum communications, said pan jianwei, the lead scientist of the chinese team, quantum experiments at space scale (quess), according to the official xinhua news agency.the scientists exploited the phenomenon of quantum entanglement, in which a particle can affect a far-off twin instantly, somehow overcoming the long d...

for quantum computers, silicon’s springtime may finally have arrived.silicon-based technology is a late bloomer in the quantum computing world, lagging behind other methods. now for the first time, scientists have performed simple algorithms on a silicon-based quantum computer, physicist lieven vandersypen and colleagues report online february 14 in nature. the computer has just two quantum bits, or qubits, so it can perform only rudimentary computations. but the demonstration is “really the first of its kind in silicon,” says quantum physicist jason petta of princeton university, who was not involved with the research.petta and colleagues report making silicon qubits interact with light in another paper also published online february 14 in nature. that feat could eventually allow ...

quantum algebra is an umbrella term used to describe a number of different mathematical ideas, all of which are linked back to the original realisation that in quantum physics, one finds noncommutativity. the areas now encompassed by the term "quantum algebra" are not necessarily directly or obviously related to each other (and this is even more true for publications tagged math.qa on the arxiv, since arxiv classifications are intended to flag work as "of interest to people in area x", not that "this work is in area x"; the mathematics subject classification is better suited to this, but is naturally a much finer classification, and most items have multiple tags).the original quantum groups (more precisely, deformation quantizations of enveloping and coordinate algebras) are one exam...

emiyaxtousaka|42m ago|opinion piece|23|paul writes: "today marks the fifth anniversary of the xbox one's official reveal. in honor of this, we decided to look back at the library of exclusives that the system had to offer. one game, in particular, stood out: quantum break." quantum breakxbox onevgculturehq.comread full story >>vgculturehq.com

when you think about it, it shouldn’t be surprising that there’s more than one way to explain quantum mechanics. quantum math is notorious for incorporating multiple possibilities for the outcomes of measurements. so you shouldn’t expect physicists to stick to only one explanation for what that math means. and in fact, sometimes it seems like researchers have proposed more “interpretations” of this math than katy perry has followers on twitter.so it would seem that the world needs more quantum interpretations like it needs more category 5 hurricanes. but until some single interpretation comes along that makes everybody happy (and that’s about as likely as the cleveland browns winning the super bowl), yet more interpretations will emerge. one of the latest appeared recently (sep...

until we have an accepted solution of the measurement problem there is no definitive definition of quantum measurement, since we don't know exactly what happens at measurement.in the meanwhile, measurement is simply defined as part of the postulates and recipe associated with the notion of a quantum observable. mostly an observable is thought of as an hermitian operator, but i rather like to think of it as such an operator indivisibly linked with a recipe for how to interpret its predictions when the quantum state $\psi$ prevails, namely, that:the probability distribution of the measurement modelled by the observable has $n^{th}$ moment $\langle \psi|\hat{a}^n|\psi\rangle$, whence, with all the moments calculated thus, we can derive the distribution itself;immediately after the meas...

you might have also meant a related question: why is $\langle m | n\rangle$ equal to zero if $m\ne n$? like in 3d it's obvious that we just choose three vectors to point in perpendicular directions and their dot products with each other are zero, but can we still do this in this weird quantum space?generally these basis states $|m\rangle$ were carefully derived because they have some relationship with a quantum operator that we could call, say, the "unperturbed hamiltonian operator" $\hat h_0$, such that $\hat h_0 |m\rangle = e_m |m\rangle,$ where $e_m$ is some real energy of the state. now our quantum algebra demands that $\big(\langle \phi|\chi\rangle\big)^* = \langle \chi|\phi\rangle$ for any vectors $|\chi\rangle$ and $|\psi\rangle$, where the $*$ is complex co...

gizmodo, meanwhile, has seen a second draft bill that would start a decade-long national quantum initiative program to set priorities for developing the technology, including investments and partnerships. the department of energy, national science foundation, national institute of standards and technology and the director of national intelligence would all foster education and research. the bill would also create up to five quantum information science research centers as well as two quantum research and education centers.it won't surprise you to hear that academics and quantum computing pioneers would like to see the bills become law. d-wave and ibm have already lent their support to the efforts. the challenge, of course, is turning these well-meaning ideas into law. the national defense .

john archibald wheeler was fond of clever phrases.he made the term “black hole” famous in the 1960s. he also coined the now-familiar “wormhole” and “quantum foam.” while further pondering the mystery of quantum physics at the university of texas at austin during the 1980s, wheeler repeatedly uttered his favorite interrogative slogan: “how come the quantum?” and from those ponderings emerged yet another memorable phrase: “it from bit.” that became a meme that inspired a surprising new field of physics — quantum information theory.that theory’s basic unit, the qubit, made its scientific debut at a conference in dallas 25 years ago. wheeler didn’t invent the term qubit. one of his former students, benjamin schumacher, coined it to refer to a bit of quantum informatio...

vibrations of a tiny cantilever could help reveal why quantum rules fail on large scales.

not surprisingly, you probably won't get to use this quantum machine yourself. much as in the old mainframe days, this computer is aimed at "business and science" customers that need to solve specific problems. to that end, ibm is helping research partners canon, hitachi metals, honda, jsr, nagase and samsung explore potential uses for quantum tech.the exciting part, ibm argues, isn't so much the known performance as the possibilities. no one knows the full extent of what a universal quantum computer can do -- it's entirely feasible that the device will solve problems that aren't even on the table right now. the biggest challenges are creating a tangible roadmap for production, and developing something affordable enough that it's genuinely practical to use outside of a handful of ca...

in a feat of quantum one-upmanship, two teams of scientists have staked new claims of linking whopping numbers of atoms at the quantum level.researchers from geneva demonstrated quantum entanglement of 16 million atoms, smashing the previous record of about 3,000 entangled atoms (sn online: 3/25/2015). meanwhile, scientists from canada and the united states used a similar technique to entangle over 200 groups of a billion atoms each. the teams published their results online march 14 in a pair of papers posted at arxiv.org.through quantum entanglement, seemingly independent particles become intertwined. entangled atoms can no longer be considered separate entities, but make sense only as part of a whole — even though the atoms may be far apart. the process typically operates on small scal..

the new york marathon was the first marathon i ran in the usa. that was in 1998. i have two strong memories from that event, aside from the pain of the final stretch through central park. the first was the international run the day before the marathon. this short warm up event is for the thousands of non-us runners. it started in front of the un headquarters and almost every member nation must have been represented, including many muslim majority nations. i recall spotting the flags of some of them in the riot of colour and goodwill. the new york marathon is exceptional in the large proportion of places it allocates to foreign runners. the second vivid memory is from the event itself. the course takes you through all five boroughs and even more neighbourhoods. i remember p ing through crow